"For shameful deeds are taught by shameful deeds." -- Sophocles
Sophocles ( Sophokl?s, his name was very likely pronounced ; (c. 497/6 BCE - winter 406/5 BCE) was the second of the three ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus and earlier than those of Euripides. According to the Suda, a 10th century encyclopedia, Sophocles wrote 123 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Trachinian Women, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. For almost 50 years, Sophocles was the most-feted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles competed in around 30 competitions; he won perhaps 24 and was never judged lower than second place; in comparison, Aeschylus won 14 competitions and was defeated by Sophocles at times, while Euripides won only 4 competitions.
The most famous of Sophocles' tragedies are those concerning Oedipus and Antigone: these are often known as the Theban plays, although each play was actually a part of different tetralogy, the other members of which are now lost. Sophocles influenced the development of the drama, most importantly by adding a third actor and thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. He also developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus.
"A day lays low and lifts up again all human things.""A fearful man is always hearing things.""A human being is only breath and shadow.""A lie never lives to be old.""A man growing old becomes a child again.""A short saying often contains much wisdom.""A soul that is kind and intends justice discovers more than any sophist.""A state is not a state if it belongs to one man.""A wise doctor does not mutter incantations over a sore that needs the knife.""A wise man does not chatter with one whose mind is sick.""A word does not frighten the man who, in acting, feels no fear.""Alas, how quickly the gratitude owed to the dead flows off, how quick to be proved a deceiver.""All a man's affairs become diseased when he wishes to cure evils by evils.""All is disgust when a man leaves his own nature and does what is unfit.""Always desire to learn something useful.""Bear up, my child, bear up; Zeus who oversees and directs all things is still mighty in heaven.""Best to live lightly, unthinkingly.""Better not to exist than live basely.""But this is a true saying among men: the gifts of enemies are no gifts and profitless.""But whoever gives birth to useless children, what would you say of him except that he has bred sorrows for himself, and furnishes laughter for his enemies.""Children are the anchors of a mother's life.""Despair often breeds disease.""Do not grieve yourself too much for those you hate, nor yet forget them utterly.""Don't you know that silence supports the accuser's charge?""Enemies' gifts are no gifts and do no good.""Even a poor man can receive honors.""Every man can see things far off but is blind to what is near.""Evil counsel travels fast.""Evil gains work their punishment.""Foolishness is indeed the sister of wickedness.""For death is not the worst, but when one wants to die and is not able even to have that.""For the dead there are no more toils.""For the wretched one night is like a thousand; for someone faring well death is just one more night.""For those whose wit becomes the mother of villainy, those it educates to be evil in all things.""Fortune cannot aid those who do nothing.""Fortune raises up and fortune brings low both the man who fares well and the one who fares badly; and there is no prophet of the future for mortal men.""God's dice always have a lucky roll.""Gratitude to gratitude always gives birth.""He who throws away a friend is as bad as he who throws away his life.""Hide nothing, for time, which sees all and hears all, exposes all.""How dreadful knowledge of the truth can be when there's no help in the truth.""How sweet for those faring badly to forget their misfortunes even for a short time.""Hush! Check those words. Do not cure ill with ill and make your pain still heavier than it is.""I see that all of us who live are nothing but images or insubstantial shadow.""I see the state of all of us who live, nothing more than phantoms or a weightless shadow.""I would prefer even to fail with honor than win by cheating.""I would rather miss the mark acting well than win the day acting basely.""If it were possible to cure evils by lamentation and to raise the dead with tears, then gold would be a less valuable thing than weeping.""If my body is enslaved, still my mind is free.""If one begins all deeds well, it is likely that they will end well too.""If we are to keep our democracy, there must be one commandment: "Thou shalt not ration justice."""If you have done terrible things, you must endure terrible things; for thus the sacred light of injustice shines bright.""If you were to offer a thirsty man all wisdom, you would not please him more than if you gave him a drink.""Ignorant men don't know what good they hold in their hands until they've flung it away.""In a just cause the weak will beat the strong.""Isn't it the sweetest mockery to mock our enemies?""It is a base thing for a man among the people not to obey those in command. Never in a state can the laws be well administered when fear does not stand firm.""It is best to live however one can be.""It is terrible to speak well and be wrong.""It is the merit of a general to impart good news, and to conceal the truth.""It is the task of a good man to help those in misfortune.""It was my care to make my life illustrious not by words more than by deeds.""It's a terrible thing to speak well and be wrong.""It's impossible to speak what it is not noble to do.""Kindness is ever the begetter of kindness.""Look and you will find it - what is unsought will go undetected.""Man is not constituted to take pleasure in the same things always.""Men may know many things by seeing; but no prophet can see before the event, nor what end waits for him.""Men of ill judgment ignore the good that lies within their hands, till they have lost it.""Men should pledge themselves to nothing; for reflection makes a liar of their resolution.""Money is the worst currency that ever grew among mankind. This sacks cities, this drives men from their homes, this teaches and corrupts the worthiest minds to turn base deeds.""Much speech is one thing, well-timed speech is another.""Much wisdom often goes with fewest words.""No enemy is worse than bad advice.""No lie ever reaches old age.""No man loves the bearer of bad tidings.""No one longs to live more than someone growing old.""No one who errs unwillingly is evil.""No speech can stain what is noble by nature.""No treaty is ever an impediment to a cheat.""Not all things are to be discovered; many are better concealed.""Not even Ares battles against necessity.""Not even old age knows how to love death.""Not knowing anything is the sweetest life.""Not to be born is, past all prizing, best.""Now I see that going out into the testing ground of men it is the tongue and not the deed that wins the day.""Old age and the passage of time teach all things.""One who knows how to show and to accept kindness will be a friend better than any possession.""One word frees us of all the weight and pain in life. That word is love.""Our happiness depends on wisdom all the way.""Profit is sweet, even if it comes from deception.""Quick decisions are unsafe decisions.""Rather fail with honor than succeed by fraud.""Reason is God's crowning gift to man.""Reverence does not die with mortals, nor does it perish whether they live or die.""Silence is an ornament for women.""Success is dependent on effort.""The dice of Zeus always fall luckily.""The gods plant reason in mankind, of all good gifts the highest.""The keenest sorrow is to recognize ourselves as the sole cause of all our adversities.""The oaths of a woman I inscribe on water.""The rewards of virtue alone abide secure.""There are some who praise a man free from disease; to me no man who is poor seems free from disease but to be constantly sick.""There is a point at which even justice does injury.""There is a time when even justice brings harm.""There is an ancient saying among men that you cannot thoroughly understand the life of mortals before the man has died, then only can you call it good or bad.""There is no greater evil for men than the constraint of fortune.""There is no greater evil than anarchy.""There is no sense in crying over spilt milk. Why bewail what is done and cannot be recalled?""There is no success without hardship.""There is no witness so terrible and no accuser so powerful as conscience which dwells within us.""There is nothing more hateful than bad advice.""There is some pleasure even in words, when they bring forgetfulness of present miseries.""Things gained through unjust fraud are never secure.""Those whose life is long still strive for gain, and for all mortals all things take second place to money.""Time alone reveals the just man; but you might discern a bad man in a single day.""To be doing good deeds is man's most glorious task.""To give birth is a fearsome thing; there is no hating the child one has borne even when injured by it.""To him who is in fear everything rustles.""To live without evil belongs only to the gods.""Trust dies but mistrust blossoms.""War never takes a wicked man by chance, the good man always.""What house, bloated with luxury, ever became prosperous without a woman's excellence?""When a man has lost all happiness, he's not alive. Call him a breathing corpse.""When trouble ends even troubles please.""Who seeks shall find.""Whoever gets up and comes to grips with Love like a boxer is a fool.""Whoever grows angry amid troubles applies a drug worse than the disease and is a physician unskilled about misfortunes.""Whoever lives among many evils just as I, how can dying not be a source of gain?""Whoever neglects the arts when he is young has lost the past and is dead to the future.""Whoever thinks his friend more important than his country, I rate him nowhere.""Whoever thinks that he alone has speech, or possesses speech or mind above others, when unfolded such men are seen to be empty.""Whoever understands how to do a kindness when he fares well would be a friend better than any possession.""Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness.""Wisdom outweighs any wealth.""Wise thinkers prevail everywhere.""Without labor nothing prospers.""You should not consider a man's age but his acts.""You win the victory when you yield to friends."
Sophocles, the son of Sophilos, was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica, which would later become a setting for one of his plays, and he was probably born there. His birth took place a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE: the exact year is unclear, although 497/6 is perhaps most likely. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BCE, when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus. According to Plutarch the victory came under unusual circumstances. Instead of following the custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. Plutarch further contends that Aeschylus soon left for Sicily following this loss to Sophocles. Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production, it is now thought that this is an embellishment of the truth and that his first production was most likely in 470 BCE. Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival.
Sophocles became a man of importance in the public halls of Athens as well as in the theatres. At the age of 16, he was chosen to lead the paean, a choral chant to a god, celebrating the decisive Greek sea victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. The rather insufficient information about Sophocles’ civic life implies he was a well-liked man who participated in activities in society and showed remarkable artistic ability. He was also elected as one of ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces, as a junior colleague of Pericles. Sophocles was born extremely wealthy (his father was a wealthy armour manufacturer) and was highly educated throughout his entire life. Early in his career, the politician Cimon might have been one of his patrons, although if he was there was no ill will borne by Pericles, Cimon's rival, when Cimon was ostracized in 461 BCE In 443/2 he served as one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, helping to manage the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles. According to the Vita Sophoclis he served as a general in the Athenian campaign against Samos, which had revolted in 441 BCE; he was supposed to have been elected to his post as the result of his production of Antigone.
In 420 he welcomed and set up an altar for the image of Asclepius at his house, when the deity was introduced to Athens. For this he was given the posthumous epithet Dexion (receiver) by the Athenians. He was also elected, in 413 BCE, to be one of the commissioners crafting a response to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War.
Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety-one in the winter of 406/5 BCE, having seen within his lifetime both the Greek triumph in the Persian Wars and the terrible bloodletting of the Peloponnesian War. As with many famous men in classical antiquity, Sophocles' death inspired a number of apocryphal stories about the cause. Perhaps the most famous is the suggestion that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his Antigone without pausing to take a breath. Another account suggests he choked while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. A third account holds that he died of happiness after winning his final victory at the City Dionysia. A few months later, the comic poet wrote this eulogy in his play titled The Muses: "Blessed is Sophocles, who had a long life, was a man both happy and talented, and the writer of many good tragedies; and he ended his life well without suffering any misfortune." This is somewhat ironic, for according to some accounts his own sons tried to have him declared incompetent near the end of his life; he is said to have refuted their charge in court by reading from his as yet unproduced Oedipus at Colonus. One of his sons, Iophon, and a grandson, also called Sophocles, both followed in his footsteps to become playwrights.
Sophocles as erastęs
It was common in fifth-century Greece for men of the upper classes to cultivate sexual relationships with adolescent boys. Sophocles was one such participant in the relationship between the erastęs ("lover") and eromenos ("beloved").
Athenaeus reports two stories of this kind, one, if authentic, from a contemporary: a symposium in which Sophocles cleverly steals a kiss from the boy sitting next to him, and another in which Sophocles entices a young boy to have sex outside the walls of Athens, and the boy takes Sophocles' cloak. According to Plutarch, when he caught Sophocles admiring a young boy's looks, Pericles rebuked him for neglecting his duty as a strategos. Sophocles' sexual appetite reportedly lasted well into old age. In The Republic (1.329b-329c) Plato tells us that when he finally succumbed to impotence, Sophocles was glad to be free of his "raging and savage beast of a master." It is debatable how far such anecdotes were invented as references to this well-known passage.
In yet another such account, a satirical one by Machon involving a hetaira known for her ironical sense of humor, we are told that, "Demophon, Sophocles' minion, when still a youth had Nico, already old and surnamed the she-goat; they say she had very fine buttocks. One day he begged of her to lend them to him. 'Very well,' she said with a smile,...'Take from me, dear, what you give to Sophocles.'"
Among Sophocles' earliest innovations was the addition of a third actor, which further reduced the role of the chorus and created greater opportunity for character development and conflict between characters. Aeschylus, who dominated Athenian playwrighting during Sophocles' early career, followed suit and adopted the third character into his own work towards the end of his life. Aristotle credits Sophocles with the introduction of skenographia, or scenery-painting. It was not until after the death of the old master Aeschylus in 456 BCE that Sophocles became the pre-eminent playwright in Athens.
Thereafter, Sophocles emerged victorious in dramatic competitions at 18 Dionysia and 6 Lenaia festivals. In addition to innovations in dramatic structure, Sophocles' work is also known for its deeper development of characters than earlier playwrights. His reputation was such that foreign rulers invited him to attend their courts, although unlike Aeschylus who died in Sicily, or Euripides who spent time in Macedon, Sophocles never accepted any of these invitations. Aristotle used Sophocles' Oedipus the King in his Poetics (c. 335 BCE) as an example of the highest achievement in tragedy, which suggests the high esteem in which his work was held by later Greeks.
Only two of the seven surviving plays can be dated securely: Philoctetes (409 BCE) and Oedipus at Colonus (401 BCE, staged after Sophocles' death by his grandson). Of the others, Electra shows stylistic similarities to these two plays, which suggests that it was probably written in the latter part of his career. Ajax, Antigone and The Trachiniae are generally thought to be among his early works, again based on stylistic elements, with Oedipus the King coming in Sophocles' middle period. Most of Sophocles' plays show an undercurrent of early fatalism and the beginnings of Socratic logic as a mainstay for the long tradition of Greek tragedy.
The Theban plays
The Theban plays consist of three plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King (also called Oedipus Tyrannus or Oedipus Rex), and Oedipus at Colonus. All three plays concern the fate of Thebes during and after the reign of King Oedipus. They have often been published under a single cover. Sophocles, however, wrote the three plays for separate festival competitions, many years apart. Not only are the Theban plays not a true trilogy (three plays presented as a continuous narrative) but they are not even an intentional series and contain some inconsistencies among them. He also wrote other plays having to do with Thebes, such as The Progeny, of which only fragments have survived.
Each of the plays relates to the tale of the mythological Oedipus, who killed his father and married his mother without knowledge that they were his parents. His family is fated to be doomed for three generations.
In Oedipus the King, Oedipus is the protagonist. Oedipus' infanticide is planned by his parents, Laius and Jocasta, to avert him fulfilling a prophecy ; in truth, the servant entrusted with the infanticide passes the infant on through a series of intermediaries to a childless couple, who adopt him not knowing his history. Oedipus eventually learns of the Delphic Oracle's prophecy of him, that he would kill his father and marry his mother ; Oedipus attempts to flee his fate without harming his parents (at this point, he does not know that he is adopted). Oedipus meets a man at a crossroads accompanied by servants; Oedipus and the man fought, and Oedipus killed the man. (This man was his father, Laius, not that anyone apart from the gods knew this at the time). He becomes the ruler of Thebes after solving the riddle of the sphinx and in the process, marries the widowed Queen, his mother Jocasta. Thus the stage is set for horrors. When the truth comes out, folling from another true but confusing prophecy from Delphi, Jocasta commits suicide, Oedipus blinds himself and leaves Thebes, and the children are left to sort out the consequences themselves (which provides the grounds for the later parts of the cycle of plays).
In Oedipus at Colonus, the banished Oedipus and his daughters Antigone and Ismene arrive at the town of Colonus where they encounter Theseus, King of Athens. Oedipus dies and strife begins between his sons Polyneices and Eteocles.
In Antigone the protagonist is Oedipus' daughter. Antigone is faced with the choice of allowing her brother Polyneices' body to remain unburied, outside the city walls, exposed to the ravages of wild animals, or to bury him and face death. The king of the land, Creon, has forbidden the burial of Polyneices for he was a traitor to the city. Antigone decides to bury his body and face the consequences of her actions. Creon sentences her to death. Eventually, Creon is convinced to free Antigone from her punishment, but his decision comes too late and Antigone commits suicide. Her suicide triggers the suicide of two others close to King Creon: his son, Haemon, who was to wed Antigone, and his wife who commits suicide after losing her only surviving son.
Composition and inconsistencies
The plays were written across thirty-six years of Sophocles' career and were not composed in chronological order, but instead were written in the order Antigone, Oedipus the King, and Oedipus at Colonus. Nor were they composed as a trilogy - a group of plays to be performed together, but are the remaining parts of three different groups of plays. As a result, there are some inconsistencies: notably, Creon is the undisputed king at the end of Oedipus the King and, in consultation with Apollo, single-handedly makes the decision to expel Oedipus from Thebes. Creon is also instructed to look after Oedipus' daughters Antigone and Ismene at the end of Oedipus the King. By contrast, in the other plays there is some struggle with Oedipus' sons Eteocles and Polynices in regard to the succession. In Oedipus at Colonus, Sophocles attempts to work these inconsistencies into a coherent whole: Ismene explains that, in light of their tainted family lineage, her brothers were at first willing to cede the throne to Creon. Nevertheless, they eventually decided to take charge of the monarchy, with each brother disputing the other's right to succeed. In addition to being in a clearly more powerful position in Oedipus at Colonus, Eteocles and Polynices are also culpable: they condemn their father to exile, which is one of his bitterest charges against them.
Other than the three Theban plays, there are four surviving plays by Sophocles: Ajax, The Trachiniae, Electra, and Philoctetes, the last of which won first prize.
Ajax focuses on the proud hero of the Trojan War, Telamonian Ajax, who is driven to treachery and eventually suicide. Ajax becomes gravely upset when Achilles’ armor is presented to Odysseus instead of himself. Despite their enmity toward him, Odysseus persuades the kings Menelaus and Agamemnon to grant Ajax a proper burial.
The Trachiniae (named for the Trachinian women who make up the chorus) dramatizes Deianeira's accidentally killing Heracles after he had completed his famous twelve labors. Tricked into thinking it is a love charm, Deianeira applies poison to an article of Heracles' clothing; this poisoned robe causes Heracles to die an excruciating death. Upon learning the truth, Deianeira commits suicide.
Electra Corresponds roughly to the plot of Aeschylus' Libation Bearers. It details how Electra and Orestes' avenge their father Agamemnon's murder by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus.
Philoctetes retells the story of Philoctetes, an archer who had been abandoned on Lemnos by the rest of the Greek fleet while on the way to Troy. After learning that they cannot win the Trojan War without Philoctetes' bow, the Greeks send Odysseus and Neoptolemus to retrieve him; due to the Greeks' earlier treachery, however, Philoctetes refuses to rejoin the army. It is only Heracles' deus ex machina appearance that persuades Philoctetes to go to Troy.
Fragments of The Tracking Satyrs (Ichneutae) were discovered in Egypt in 1907. These amount to about half of the play, making it the best preserved satyr play after Euripides' Cyclops, which survives in its entirety. Fragments of The Progeny (Epigonoi) were discovered in April 2005 by classicists at Oxford University with the help of infrared technology previously used for satellite imaging. The tragedy tells the story of the second siege of Thebes. A number of other Sophoclean works have survived only in fragments, including:
* Aias Lokros (Ajax the Locrian)
* Akhaiôn Syllogos (The Gathering of the Achaeans)
* Aleadae (The Sons of Aleus)
* Lacaenae (Lacaenian Women)
* Manteis or Polyidus (The Prophets or Polyidus)
* Nauplios Katapleon (Nauplius' Arrival)
* Nauplios Pyrkaeus (Nauplius' Fires)
* Poimenes (The Shepherds)
* Syndeipnoi (The Diners, or, The Banqueters)
* Tyro Keiromene (Tyro Shorn)
* Tyro Anagnorizomene (Tyro Rediscovered).
Sophocles' view of his own work
There is a passage of Plutarch's tract De Profectibus in Virtute 7 in which Sophocles discusses his own growth as a writer. A likely source of this material for Plutarch was the Epidemiae of Ion of Chios, a book that recorded many conversations of Sophocles. This book is a likely candidate to have contained Sophocles' discourse on his own development because Ion was a friend of Sophocles, and the book is known to have been used by Plutarch. Though some interpretations of Plutarch's words suggest that Sophocles says that he imitated Aeschylus, the translation does not fit grammatically, nor does the interpretation that Sophocles said that he was making fun of Aeschylus' works. C. M. Bowra argues for the following translation of the line:"After practising to the full the bigness of Aeschylus, then the painful ingenuity of my own invention, now in the third stage I am changing to the kind of diction which is most expressive of character and best."
Here Sophocles says that he has completed a stage of Aeschylus' work, meaning that he went through a phase of imitating Aeschylus' style but is finished with that. Sophocles' opinion of Aeschylus was mixed. He certainly respected him enough to imitate his work early on in his career, but he had reservations about Aeschylus' style, and thus did not keep his imitation up. Sophocles' first stage, in which he imitated Aeschylus, is marked by "Aeschylean pomp in the language". Sophocles' second stage was entirely his own. He introduced new ways of evoking feeling out of an audience, like in his Ajax when he is mocked by Athene, then the stage is emptied so that he may commit suicide alone. Sophocles mentions a third stage, distinct from the other two, in his discussion of his development. The third stage pays more heed to diction. His characters spoke in a way that was more natural to them and more expressive of their individual character feelings.